In the school in the Chilterns where I have been supply teaching, the red kites ‘play’ in the thermals …. a sign that wildlife is once again returning to parts of the United Kingdom. Nature’s Place in Town is being restored, to the benefit of both Children and Nature! These provide excellent examples of how this magnificent species can live with others and alongside humans – ironically, also showing how us – humans – almost drove them to extinction! That’s environmental education in action!
Red kites were almost extinct in the UK by the early 1900s, reduced to very low numbers in Wales. In the last two decades, they have been re-introduced to England and Scotland, with magnificent results.
Between 2003 and 2008 the Chilterns Conservation Board ran a red kite ‘Nest Watch’ project, to bring the public up close and personal with a family of red kites. The project used Big Brother style CCTV technology to get an insight into the breeding behaviour of a pair of red kites, as they built their nest, laid and incubated eggs and reared their chicks. The following clips reveal the highs and lows of family life.
Red kites were almost extinct in the UK by the early 1900s, reduced to very low numbers in Wales. In the last two decades, they have been re-introduced to England and Scotland, with magnificent results.
- Phase of recovery: Recovery
- Amber list Bird of Conservation Concern
Red kites were persecuted to extinction throughout the UK, with the exception of Wales, during the 19th century. In Wales, during the 20th century, the small population was carefully protected, and red kites have slowly increased in numbers and range since the Second World War. Bringing them back
In 1989 a re-introduction programme was set up by the RSPB and the Nature Conservancy Council because of concerns about the slow rate of population expansion in Wales, and the improbability of natural re-colonisation of other suitable parts of the UK by red kites from Wales or the continent. In England, red kites have been re-introduced to four areas since 1989: the Chilterns, East Midlands, Yorkshire and north-east England. The first birds were brought from Spain, but as the Chilterns population grew quickly it produced enough young birds to donate small numbers to establish populations in the other areas. The final project, Northern Kites near Gateshead in north-east England, began in 2004.
Red kites were brought from Sweden and Germany to North and Central Scotland, and breeding populations have been successfully established. In Dumfries & Galloway, 100 red kites were brought from the Chilterns and North Scotland, and breeding is now becoming regular.
The RSPB, together with its partners, has worked hard to ensure local support for the red kite reintroduction projects. It has been important to reassure landowners and gamekeepers that red kites pose no risk to game shooting interests or livestock. Most have seen this for themselves, and are now proud to have kites nesting on their land, protecting them and monitoring their success.
Christopher Ussher, resident agent at the Harewood Estate, was quoted in Shooting Times and Country Magazine as saying: ‘Initially we received comments from neighbours about how the birds would affect the estate, but there is no conflict at all.’
Support from local residents has been important too and we have often started by visiting schools, inviting children to see kites being released and helping them with associated project work. The children find out that kites are exciting and spectacular birds and share their enthusiasm with family and friends.
Local economies have benefited from ‘kite country’ green tourism initiatives. Touring red kite trails have been set up, and enterprising farmers have set up kite-feeding stations which draw high numbers of visitors.
A bright future
The prospects for red kites in the UK are extremely good, with increasing numbers at most of the release locations. The population in Wales has increased to over 400 pairs and populations in most of the release areas in Scotland and England are already self-sustaining. This is particularly welcome as the European red kite population has declined dramatically and is now listed as globally-threatened by the IUCN/BirdLife International. In the UK, only in northern Scotland do we have serious concerns about the future. Numerous incidents of illegal poisoning appear to be preventing the population from increasing.
The same number of red kites were released in the Chilterns as in North Scotland between 1989 and 1993, but while the Chilterns population has grown to over 200 pairs, the north Scottish population has remained at only 35 pairs. The population produces lots of young, but fewer survive and so the population has stopped growing.
Here we will be moving a small number of birds over the next five years to a new area to the north-east to hasten recovery of red kites in that area. We believe persecution is the main limiting factor in north Scotland, and we are carrying out a persecution study, using radiotelemetry to identify persecution hot spots. We are working with Police wildlife crime officers to track down those responsible.
The original re-introduction projects were developed by the RSPB, English Nature and Scottish Natural Heritage. The Gateshead release project ‘Northern Kites’ is run by the RSPB and English Nature. Other partners are Gateshead Council, Northumbrian Water, National Trust and Forestry Commission England, and we have funding support from the Heritage Lottery Fund and SITA Environmental Trust.
In the English Midlands, a public viewing scheme is run at a Forestry Commission England visitor centre. In the Chilterns red kites are monitored by the Southern England Kite Group, who assist in translocation of birds for other re-introduction areas. In Yorkshire, the release project was a collaboration between the RSPB, EN, Harewood Estate and Yorkshire Water.
In Scotland, reintroduction projects have been carried out in collaboration with SNH, Forestry Commission Scotland and the Scottish Raptor Study Groups. We have also received funding for kite work from LEADER+, and Making Tracks.
In Wales, we are grateful to the Welsh Kite Trust who monitor many of the nesting pairs.
Yesterday the Prime Minister Gordon Brown launched the election 2010 campaign. But what do the three main political parties and what they stand for regarding the environment and education – key issues for readers of this blog.
MY OVERALL VIEW: Each party seems to have a mixed bag of positives and ideas that are not so pro-environment or education. With some oustanding efforts, particularly at Copenhagen, Labour has for me lost their way re the environment somewhat. A ban on fox hunting, lack of joined up thinking on a low-carbon environment (Transition Towns) and the ‘environment’ is not at the heart of the curriculum eg. lack of adequate funding re school trips – as illustarted in a previous blog. Conservatives relaunch to be the ‘pro-environment party’ yet the ‘environment’ again not at the heart of the curriculum. Hoorah for their Heathrow policy yet they would repeal the ban on fox hunting! The Lib Dems are positively focussed on ending our over-reliance on Nuclear power, with promises of investment in renewable energy and the ‘Green Grid’. But will they ever get enough votes to gain power or do we need a change in the form of ‘proportional representation’. Or otherwise, a major change in the form of the Greens?
And what do you think?
Source: The Independent http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/where-the-parties-stand-education-1930588.html
Labour http://www2.labour.org.uk/home is promising the make the transition towards a low-carbon economy that would not only tackle climate change but also provide large numbers of new green jobs, with the aim of seeing 1.2m people in environment-related employment by the end of the current decade. The party aims to give a quarter of British homes a full eco-makeover by 2020 and to install a smart meter in every home, also by 2020, making it easier to cut energy use and save money on bills; to give a further six million households help with insulation by 2012, and to have phased out high-energy light bulbs in favour of energy efficient ones by next year. The party would also continue with major efforts to tackle climate change internationally. Labour would maintain the ban on fox hunting, which the Tories would seek to repeal.
MY VIEW: With some oustanding efforts, partuicularly at Copenhagen, labour has for me lost their way re the environment somewhat. Good: Climate change and ban on fox hunting. Unconvinced re low-carbon (lack of joined up thinking )http://www.transitionnetwork.org/ and environment not at the heart of the curriculum http://www.naee.org.uk/eg. lack of adequate funding re school trips – see previous blog.
What do you you think?
David Cameron rebranded the Tory Party http://www.conservatives.com/with a green paintbrush but there are signs – watched anxiously by environmentalists – that the environment is losing its allure for the party. Although they back the current Government’s climate change targets for cutting carbon emissions and want restrictions on coal-fired power stations, they have yet to endorse publicly its renewable energy programme for building windfarms (not popular in the shires). Their most prominent green selling point at the moment is their pledge to cancel the planned third runway at London’s Heathrow Airport, and replace it with a high-speed rail line to the north. On the countryside, they would bring in a bill to repeal the Hunting Act 2004, the measure that outlawed foxhunting, and allow a free vote on it in government time.
MY VIEW: Unconvinced relaunch to be the ‘pro-environment party’; environment still not at the heart of the curriculum. Good: Heathrow. Bad: repealing ban on fox hunting.
What do you you think?
Most distinctively, the Lib Dems http://www.libdems.org.uk/home.aspx would scrap the move towards new nuclear power, which has been endorsed by the other main parties as part of their strategy to combat climate change, on the grounds that there are no plans yet to dispose of the new waste arisings and there will have to be a massive public subsidy to build any new plants. Instead, the party promises a massive programme of investment in renewable energy sources such as wind, wave and solar power, and ways to make the cost of energy less of a burden, with a fair social tariff system for disadvantaged families. On the countryside, the Lib Dems promise to promote schemes to enhance wildlife, such as a “Green National Grid“, which would link the habitats of rare species.
MY VIEW: Good: end Nuclear power over-reliance (though this is a large debate!), renewable energy and Green Grid. Will they ever get enough local votes to get into power…need proportional representation.
What do you you think?
Labour would introduce a new school report card system – grading all schools on a range of issues such as exam performance, children’s wellbeing and behaviour. Ed Balls, the Schools Secretary, has said he believes they would give more information to parents than the current league tables based on raw results. Parents would also be given the power to ballot on a change of leadership if enough of them were concerned about the way their children’s school was being run. Labour has also indicated it is willing to see the controversial external national curriculum tests for 11-year-olds replaced by teacher assessments if the these prove robust enough.
MY VIEW: Unconvinced: Government has spent last years bringing in ever-more strategies and directives, putting more pressure on already over-worked teacheers. Bad: card system (not more paper work, please!) and parents having more power. Good: scrap tests.
What do you you think?
Tories Sweeping changes to the education system with the adoption of a Swedish-style education system whereby parents, teachers, universities and faith groups would be encouraged to set up their own independent “free” schools. In addition, all schools ranked outstanding by Ofsted, the education standards watchdog, would be given the right to become academies from September. Their heads would also be encouraged to take over failing schools in a bid to turn them round. An Education Bill to bring in these changes would be brought in immediately after the election. Moves to boost the quality of teaching would see stricter entry requirements for the profession with only those with a 2:2 degree or above qualifying for teacher training places. On discipline, appeals against exclusions would be abolished and the final word on disciplinary problems would rest with the headteacher.
MY VIEW: Unconvinced by what seems a very mixed bag of ideas Good: Worth trying the swedish system; exclusions idea. Bad: 2:2 degree – qualifications do make for better teachers!
What do you you think?
The key pledge in the Liberal Democrats’ manifesto will be to introduce a “pupil premium” – which will mean schools get extra cash for every pupil on free school meals they take on. The £2.5bn plan, which would mean an extra £2,500 per pupil for schools, would be funded from tax credits and would aim to provide an incentive to heads to enrol pupils from poor families. The party would also return to the exam system envisaged by the former chief schools inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson – with an overarching diploma covering both academic and vocational qualifications. The party is also committed to abolishing top-up fees for students of £3,240 a year – although it acknowledges that economic circumstances may prevent it from implementing this pledge in the short term.
MY VIEW: Good: Pupil premium could work; academic and vocational useful differentiated focus for young people who are not ‘academic’
What do you you think?
As reported in The Independent yesterday: Campaigners calling for greater availability of official data were joined by lovers of the British countryside in hailing a partial victory against the venerable state-mapping company, after it agreed to offer free and unrestricted access to most of its maps online.
MY VIEW: Maps, those strange sheets with lots of starnge symbols on them that Scout Leaders love to pour over and some folks struggle to ever come to grips with, are one key way of getting people to do a number of otherwise difficult and near-impossible things:
* aiding proper navigation of the natural and built environment
* increasing safety, reducing the likehood of people becoming lost (or, at least these people ’know’ where they are!)
* engaging and encouraging people – esp young people – to get outdoors, improving their knowledge of the countryside they are moving through.
* This means less people indoors, and more outdoors, resulting healthy young people. This is exactly what movements such as ‘No Child Inside’ http://www.cbf.org/Page.aspx?pid=687 and the ‘Children and Nature Network’ http://www.childrenandnature.org/ are all about.
Anything that achieves the above has to be good. Whilst I respect the concept of protecting some of the download rights regarding some maps – I personally prefer a physical map in my hands, but do find the cost steep at times! – I think having a good range of map resources able to be searched for and downloaded, a good move.
The RAMBLERS think the Government has ‘lost it’s nerve’. What do you think??
OS Free map scheme won’t unleash the benefits of walking
1st April 2010
“Government lost its nerve on releasing Landranger and Explorer maps”
Ramblers have cautiously welcomed a scheme announced today that makes Ordnance Survey mapping data free to the public, but are disappointed that standard walkers maps have been left out of the package.
Until today, every bit of Ordnance Survey mapping had to be paid for under complex and expensive licensing arrangements (1)Following a consultation earlier this year, the ‘‘OS OpenData’ scheme, launched today by the Department of Communities and Local Government, will make mapping such as the 1:10 000 scale Street View digital street atlas freely available for public use and re-use. This means anyone can use the mapping as a “base” to add their own information such as walking routes or the location of services.
But the free datasets will not include digital versions of 1:25 000 Explorer and 1:50 000 Landranger maps – currently the only maps showing much important information for walkers and the standard choice for navigating on foot in rural areas.
The Ramblers, who urged the Government to fund free standard mapping data during the consultation last year, have expressed extreme disappointment that their suggestions have been ignored.
Ramblers Chief Executive, Tom Franklin, comments: “While Street View and some of the other free data will be useful and this is a step in the right direction, we’re very disappointed that the government apparently lost its nerve with releasing Landranger and Explorer.
“These maps provide a familiar view of the walking environment for many millions of walkers and making them free for re-use, would have provided the easiest and most effective way to enable keen volunteers to share their walking knowledge with others.
“We know one of the reasons people don’t walk more is that they don’t know good places to walk, and access to mapping is essential in overcoming that barrier. And more people walking more often is something the government agrees is a good thing, helping tackle obesity and even climate change.”
These maps were included in the original proposals for free mapping. The Ramblers urged the government to release them to help organisations promote attractive and accessible local walking routes, a vital tool in encouraging a healthier and more active lifestyle. Ramblers called on the government to take account of the wider social benefits of mapping, such as its role in supporting active travel to the benefit of public health and the environment.
There is something intoxicatingly romantic about an old Ordnance Survey map. They are redolent of the aromas of childhood; not just the musty smell of an ancient linen-backed tourist edition, but the way the gently water-coloured lines rise up in brown peaks from green valleys.
But they are precision tools of the present too, as a modern 1:50,000 map of any contemporary British city will show, which is why the OS website nearly went into meltdown yesterday when the public was allowed free and unrestricted access to most of its maps online for the first time.
THE ARTICLE IN FULL
British wildernesses may be few and far between nowadays, but the urge to experience nature in the raw remains a primal impulse among the nation’s hikers, bikers and fitness enthusiasts. And for anyone looking to venture into the great outdoors this weekend, an Ordnance Survey (OS) map remains the prerequisite piece of kit to be packed alongside an apple, a cagoul and a box of corned beef and pickle sandwiches to ensure a safe return from a day yomping across hill and dale.
Yesterday campaigners calling for greater availability of official data were joined by lovers of the British countryside in hailing a partial victory against the venerable state-mapping company, after it agreed to offer free and unrestricted access to most of its maps online.
The landmark decision by the OS followed a long public consultation designed to open up information sources gathered at the taxpayer’s expense and to make them available to a new generation of users without charge. Among those welcoming the initiative was the creator of the World Wide Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, who has been advising Gordon Brown on ways to liberate the Government’s vast data banks to a new wave of entrepreneurs who, it is hoped, may be able to use them to create cutting-edge industries.
Ministers were forced to waive the long-guarded copyright in response to the huge amount of mapping information already available on the internet free of charge. Services such as Google Earth, Street View and Multimap have revolutionised the way that the public perceives and pays for cartographical information.
OS OpenData http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/opendata/, which went online yesterday, will exist alongside an earlier data-sharing scheme called OS OpenSpace, which is also free to groups looking to create and reproduce their own maps. It has brought an end to the absurdity of schoolchildren having to write for permission to photocopy a map from their public library.
The popularity of the service was immediately evident as the OS website became locked up with users rushing to download maps of their area for the first time.
But not everyone was entirely happy. The Ramblers http://www.ramblers.org.uk/ , a charity which represents Britain’s army of hikers and walkers, criticised the omission of the most popular scale paper maps after it was confirmed that the free datasets would not include digital versions of 1:25,000 Explorer and 1:50,000 Landranger series.
The charity’s chief executive, Tom Franklin, accused the Government of “losing its nerve”. He said: “We know one of the reasons people don’t walk more is that they don’t know good places to walk, and access to mapping is essential in overcoming that barrier. And more people walking more often is something the Government agrees is a good thing, helping tackle obesity and even climate change.”
The OS said the decision to leave out the best-selling paper maps, which retail for anything up to £15 each, was “in the national interest” and could “undermine the continued provision of a nationwide paper map series”.
Today, the geographically curious among us love nothing more than poring over the exquisitely drawn contour lines and triangulation marks of an OS map. Yet while modern-day OS maps may be viewed as documents of peace, beneficial to health and the environment, their origins are soaked in the blood of Jacobite suppression.
According to Dr Richard Oliver’s A Short History of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, the first modern maps took shape between 1747 and 1755. Their instigator was an ambitious military officer named Colonel David Watson, who served with the Army and also the Engineers of the Board of Ordnance. The painstaking work was carried out by the Lanarkshire-born surveyor William Roy, who went on to become the father of modern cartography, and the pioneering water colourist Paul Sandby, who helped turn the first maps into beautifully realised artworks. It was a primitive process by modern satellite-driven standards. The contour line was yet to be invented, and all distances were measured by 66ft lengths of chain.
The Jacobite uprising of 1745 had caused consternation to King George II, who urgently commissioned the Highlands survey as a means of pacifying the insurgent clansmen north of the border. Overseeing the project was the formidable figure of the Duke of Cumberland, later to achieve notoriety as the “Butcher” of Culloden, architect of the murderously one-sided battle where 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded at the cost of just 50 government lives.
Perhaps inevitably, however, it was to be events across the Channel that were to drive the next stage in development. A dispute between the Royal Societies of London and Paris saw the great and the good of the learned bodies try to resolve a long-running disagreement over the relative positions of their astronomical observatories. The system of triangulation settled the debate – a process whereby distances across water and other obstacles were measured for the first time using the angles of a fixed point.
Yet throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, conflict continued to fuel the need for ever more accurate and detailed maps. In England, the first charting of the rolling farmland of Kent and the marshes of Essex appeared amid mounting concern over the prospect of invasion by Napoleon’s forces.
By the time that the Battle of Waterloo was won, everywhere south of Birmingham was mapped. The work was physically demanding and progress was slow. It was not until 1823 that the survey had inched its way northwards armed with the advanced Ramsden theodolite for measuring vertical angles. Thomas Colby, the longest serving Director General of the Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days during one reconnaissance journey.
In 1841, at the time of the railway boom, officials were granted the right by Parliament to enter property in order to measure it. But disputes over which scale to adopt and the distractions of mapping Ireland failed to stem the advance of the theodolite-wielding geodesists, who continued to press ahead with their task and who have been carefully measuring, mapping and remapping the whole of the UK on a near-constant basis ever since.
Dr Christopher Board, chairman of the Charles Close Society for the Study of Ordnance Survey Maps, said the process of mapping the UK would never be complete and needed to remain largely state-funded. “If you left it to private industry you would find the most popular tourist areas would be mapped regularly and kept up to date, but there would be huge areas of agricultural land, moor or croft that would be left untouched,” he said.
The Independent Letters pages has flagged up the many distinct reasons for school trips – and education outside the classroom – being so vital in the education armery of any child, where ‘every child matters’.
The original article highlighted the difficulties – logistically and of the psyche – of running school trips. The resulting letter highlighted the very real quandary that schools, teachers, and headteachers face on a daily basis.
It highlighted, for example that: ’Whereas £300 million had been earmarked to improve school music over a three-year period, only £4.5 million had been spent on learning outside the classroom since 2005.’
Regarding the Letter: As the Headteacher Martin Priestley points out, refering to Richard Louv, in his excellent book Last Child in the Woods: ”there are vast benefits to be had from a more nature-friendly approach to education, since children develop their conceptual framework through experiencing the world in three dimensions.’
There is very real need to consider what children are missing out on, which cannot be replaced or supplemented in any other way, other than through a range of outoor experiences.
‘Instead of trying (and failing) to create a risk-free, sanitised, indoor environment for young people, we need to decide the sorts of risks we are willing for our children to encounter – and thereafter, the task is to manage it, not eliminate it.’… Attempts to keep children safe by entombing them indoors will backfire, because young people are hard-wired to seek out risk, and in so doing they are likely to turn to the internet, where they are in fact more at risk than in the real world.’
If every child really matters, then what of their connectedness to the environment?
Full versions from The Independent
School trips suffer due to lack of teacher
Children are becoming “entombed” in their homes and classrooms as a result of a demise in organised school trips, MPs were told today.
Thousands are missing out on visits to museums or the countryside because of a new clause in every teacher’s contract aimed at reducing the amount of time they cover for absent colleagues. The clause, inserted last September, says that teachers should only “rarely cover” for colleagues who are away from the classroom. It was agreed between ministers, local councils and teachers’ unions as part of a deal to reduce the pressure on teachers. However, former chief schools inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson, who is also chairman of the National Science Centre – which runs training courses for teachers and school visits, said: “I think there are some headteachers who are taking ‘rarely cover’ and converting it into ‘never cover’.
“There are some headteachers who say there will never be a teacher out of the classroom during term time.” Even in cases where the Government has promised to reimburse schools so they can pay for cover trips have been cancelled.
Tony Thomas, of the Council for Learning Outside the classroom – a body set up by the Government to promote the take-up of school trips, said: “The figures show a decline in the number of visits to parks and open spaces.”
Figures show that – in the time span of just one generation – the number of visits by children to parks and open spaces – had halved. “We’re now becoming entombed in our homes and buildings,” he added.
“Some headteachers are seeing ‘rarely cover’ as a cover for refusing to make a commitment to learning outside the classroom. The MPs, on the select committee, were told a government manifesto aimed at boosting school trips which recommended every pupil should go on at least one a year had failed to have any impact on take-up of outdoor learning opportunities. Other reasons cited for the decline include included safety fears and the risk of schools being sued if an accident occurred.
A survey by the Countryside Alliance revealed that 76 per cent of teachers were worried by the fear of litigation in the event of an accident. This is despite the fact that only half of the 364 claims made during the past decade had been successful – costing the average authority around £293 a year.
MPs were told that a lack of government cash to promote school trips was hampering efforts to improve the take-up. Whereas £300 million had been earmarked to improve school music over a three-year period, only £4.5 million had been spent on learning outside the classroom since 2005.
As a result, students in key subject areas such as science were turning up to university ill-equipped for their courses. ”The consequences are you’re not going forward with the practical skills you need and universities are reporting that students simply don’t have the practical skills they need to start courses,” said Sir Mike.
The MPs are expected to deliver a report on outside learning before the election. A spokesman for the Department for Children, Schools and Families said: “There is absolutely no reason why schools should stop providing planned school trips or visits because of this provision as advance arrangements should already have been put in place.
“Rarely cover would only ever apply if the teacher taking the children to the event is then unforeseeably absent and alternative cover had to be provided.”
Letters: School trips
Children need to go out and learn to live with risk
I was dismayed but not surprised by your article “School trips suffer due to lack of teacher cover” (3 March ). The difficulties of covering for teachers out on school trips should not deter schools from running them, nor should the current irrational approach to risk. Contrary to media coverage, the risks associated with school trips are in fact small. Too often unconsidered are the enriching benefits.
That is why I support the Countryside Alliance’s “Rural Manifesto”, which calls for outdoor learning to feature on the school curriculum. The American writer Richard Louv, in his excellent book Last Child in the Woods, describes the growing “nature-deficit disorder” among children. Too little exposure to nature, and too much to television, leads to attention difficulties. For each hour of TV watched per day by pre-schoolers, there is a 10 per cent increase in the likelihood they will develop concentration problems by the age of seven.
By contrast, as David Willetts, shadow minister for innovation, universities and skills, has pointed out, there are vast benefits to be had from a more nature-friendly approach to education, since children develop their conceptual framework through experiencing the world in three dimensions.
Attempts to keep children safe by entombing them indoors will backfire, because young people are hard-wired to seek out risk, and in so doing they are likely to turn to the internet, where they are in fact more at risk than in the real world. The digital generational divide – with children as digital natives and parents and teachers as digital immigrants – means that many adults are not technologically savvy enough to help children to understand online safety and manage online risks.
Both in and out of school, children need to be given the opportunity for adventure, both as fundamental to the quality of their childhood – for making friends, keeping healthy, inspiring the imagination – and also as fundamental to their ability to learn when they are at school. Instead of trying (and failing) to create a risk-free, sanitised, indoor environment for young people, we need to decide the sorts of risks we are willing for our children to encounter – and thereafter, the task is to manage it, not eliminate it.
Headmaster, Warminster School, Wiltshire